Nutrition and Hygene guidelines

Nutrition and Hygene guidelines

Chapter 1: General Nutritional Guidelines for schools and parents

  1. What is nutrition and why is it important?
  2. Macronutrients
  3. Micronutrients

Chapter 2: Nutritional recommendations for parents and schools

  1. Promoting healthy eating habits for children
  2. Nutritional Guidelines for Children
  3. Strategies for Parents and Schools to Promote Healthy Eating
  4. Addressing Specific Nutritional Concerns in Children
  5. Cultivating a Culture of Healthy Eating in Schools
  6. Empowering Children to Make Informed Food Choices

Chapter 3: Food preparation and hygiene

  1. What to make sure before preparing foods to cook or to eat?
  2. Why good hygiene practices is important
  3. Hygiene related diseases

Chapter 4: School Nutrition and Hygiene practices outside of Indonesia - Lesson learned from the Netherlands. 


1.1 What is nutrition and why is it important?

Nutrition is like the food that your body needs to grow, be strong, and stay healthy. Just like a car needs the right kind of fuel to run well, your body needs the right kinds of food to work properly. Here's why nutrition is important in simple terms:

  • Energy: Food gives you the energy to play, run, and have fun. It's like the "go" button for your body.
  • Growing: Eating the right foods helps you grow taller and become stronger. It's like the building blocks for your body.
  • Staying healthy: Good food helps you fight off germs and not get sick. It's like your body's shield to keep you safe.
  • Feeling good: The food you eat can also make you feel happy and ready to learn and play.


So, eating the right foods is like giving your body the best tools to be its best self. It's like being a superhero and having a healthy diet as your superpower!


(harder explanation nutrition)

Nutrition is the science of how the body obtains and utilizes the nutrients found in food to support growth, maintenance, and overall health. It encompasses the study of various components of food, such as macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats), micronutrients (vitamins and minerals), water, and dietary fiber, as well as the body's physiological processes related to digestion, absorption, metabolism, and the impact of these nutrients on health.



1.2 Macronutrients

All the products you eat contain important nutrients that are good for your body. It is important that you get enough of all the nutrients every day. But which nutrients are there and what are they good for? Lets begin with the macronutrients: 


2.1 Carbohydrates

Carbs are the fuel of your body. They give you energy, especially for the brains and muscles. Carbs give you energy when moving, but also energize your brain to think during school. There are two types of carbs, the simple carbs and the complex carbs. 

Complex carbs pack in more nutrients than simple carbs. They're higher in fiber and digest more slowly. This also makes them more filling, which means they're a good option for weight control.

The more complex the carb, the better.

In Indonesia the most commonly used carbohydrate-rich product is white rice. But it isn’t the healthiest choice. If you compare it with brown rice, it has a lot of differences. 

Brown Rice

White rice

Whole grain

Minimally processed

Less easier to digest

Easy to digest

More nutritious because containing more fiber

Less nutritious because low content fiber, vitamins and minerals


Less chewer




2.2 protein

Protein builds, maintains, and replaces the tissues in your body. (Not the tissues you blow your nose in! We mean the stuff your body's made up of.) Your muscles, your organs, and your immune system are made up mostly of protein. You'll find protein in two sources, plant based and animal based. 

Plant based protein

Plants are the source of plant based proteins. Plant based proteins included:

    • Legumes (beans, lentils, peas) 
    • Grains (rice) 
    • Nuts and seeds 
    • Vegetables (brocolli, spinach)
    • Tofu and tempeh 

Animal based protein

This protein comes from animal sources that included:

  • Meat (chicken, beef, pork)
  • Fish
  • Eggs 
  • Dairy products (milk, cheese, yoghurt)

A balanced diet includes a combination between animal and plant sources of protein. 

Ultimately, the key is to choose a variety of protein sources that align with individual health goals and dietary preferences, ensuring a well-rounded and nutritious diet.

Someone who exercises a lot needs more protein than someone who does not exercise. This is because muscles need to recover after exercise. 

Protein is an essential nutrient for children, as it plays a crucial role in their process of growth and development. When kids engage in exercise or physical activity, their protein needs may increase to support muscle development, repair, and overall health. Here are some considerations for protein intake in relation to exercise for kids:

General Protein Recommendations:

  • Adequate Intake:
  • The recommended daily protein intake for children varies based on age, sex, and activity level. In general, it is important for children to get an adequate amount of protein to support their growth and development.
  • Age-Appropriate Portions:
  • Younger children typically require fewer calories and protein than older children and adolescents. It's essential to provide age-appropriate portions of protein-rich foods.
  • Balanced Diet:
  • Encourage a balanced diet that includes a variety of protein sources, such as lean meats, poultry, fish, dairy products, eggs, legumes, nuts, and seeds.

If you are a vegetarian, that means that you don’t eat fish or meat at home, then you still can get your proteins from meat replacements like nuts, tofu, beans or chickpeas. A healthy body needs healthy food. 


2.3 fats

With fats, you often think that something is unhealthy, but there are also healthy fats. Fats are a building material, and provide vitamins that are good for your muscles.There are two types of fats: saturated fat and unsaturated fats.

Saturated Fat = unhealthy fat

What is it?

    • Saturated fat is like the solid fat that you find in some foods. It's often in things like butter, cheese, and the fat on meat. But also in fast food.


Why should we be mindful of it?

    • Too much saturated fat isn't great for our bodies. It's like having too many "solid" pieces in a puzzle; it can make things not work as well. Eating too much of it might not be good for our hearts.

What can we do?

    • We can try to choose lean meats (that means meats with less fat on them), use less butter, and pick low-fat dairy products to keep our hearts healthy.


Unsaturated Fat: healthy fat

What is it?

    • Unsaturated fat is like the liquidy or oily fat in certain foods. It's  in things like avocados, nuts, salmon, and some plant based oils, such as olive oil. 

Why is it good for us?

    • This kind of fat is like the helper in the puzzle; it can actually be good for our hearts. It helps keep everything moving smoothly and it contains more healthy nutrients that your body needs. 

What can we do?

    • We can try to eat more foods with these liquidy fats, like avocados, nuts, and fish. It's like having the right pieces to make our bodies work well.


2.4 fibers

Fibers are very important for your health. They provide good digestion so you can easily go to the toilet. They also contribute to a full feeling in your stomach and they help reduce the risk of getting various diseases, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease.


To get your fibers in you need to eat:

-          Vegetables and fruits

-          Legumes (beans, lentils, chickpeas)

-          Nuts

-          Whole grains like brown rice, bread and pasta

Tip: instead of candy, eat some fruit, it’s also very sweet!



1.3 Micronutrients

Let's go on with the micronutrients. 

Micronutrients are like the tiny super helpers in your food. They are special vitamins and minerals that your body needs in small amounts to stay healthy and work properly. Imagine your body is like a puzzle, and these micronutrients are the small, important pieces that make the puzzle complete. Each one has a specific job:

  • Vitamins: Have you ever heard about vitamins? Yes I think so too!  They help your body do things like see well in the dark (Vitamin A), heal when you get a cut (Vitamin C), and have strong bones (Vitamin D).
  • Minerals: These are like the body's little workers. For example, calcium makes your bones strong, iron helps your blood carry oxygen, and zinc keeps your immune system strong to fight off germs.

So, even though you need them in small amounts, these micronutrients are super important to keep you feeling great, growing, and staying healthy. Eating a variety of foods, like fruits, vegetables, and dairy products, can give your body the micronutrients it needs. Think of them as your body's secret helpers, making sure everything runs smoothly!

3.1 vitamins 

Vitamins are nutrients found in small amounts in food and drink. They are needed for normal growth and development and to stay healthy. They do not provide energy.

The body cannot make vitamins on its own, or not enough. That is why they are known as essential (indispensable) nutrients. So you need your vitamins.

There are 13 vitamins. The vitamins can be categorized into fat-soluble vitamins and water-soluble vitamins.

Fat-soluble vitamins



Food sources 

Deficiency risks 


Vit A 

  • Makes the immuunsystem work effectively so it can fight disease and infections 
  • Keeps your skin healthy
  • Helps with vision
  • Plant sources: orange and yellow fruits/vegetables (carrots, mangoes, pumpkin)
  • Animal sources: meat, fish, milk products, eggs
  • Increased risk of infections 
  • Night blindness

Vit D 

  • For strong bones, muscles and overall health 
  • Natural source: sunlight
  • Fatty fish 
  • Eggs 
  • Margarine 
  • Osteoporosis (muscle disease)
  • Falls and bone fractures 
  • Rickets 

Vit E

  • Antioxidant 
  • Healthy oils (extra virgin, sunflower, soybean)
  • Nuts and seeds 
  • Meats (liver)
  • Rare 

Vit K 

  • Healthy bones 
  • Blood clotting and wound healing
  • Vegetables: Spinach and kale 
  • Fruits: Avocado and kiwi 
  • Oils: Soybean oil 
  • Unexpected


Water-soluble vitamins 



Food Sources 

Deficiency risks


Vit B1-B12

Provides energy from your diet 

  • Meat/fish/eggs
  • Milk products 
  • Legumes 
  • Fruits & vegetables 
  • Nuts 
  • Weakness
  • Lack of energy 

Vit C 

  • Antioxidant
  • Good for your immune system 
  • Fruits 
  • Vegetables 
  • Regularly eating unhealthy foods 



3.2 minerals 

Minerals, like vitamins, are nutrients found in small amounts in food and drink. They are needed for good health and normal growth and development. They do not provide energy.

The best-known minerals in our diet are calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium. 



Food sources 

Deficiency risks 



  • Strengthen bones and teeth 
  • Regulate muscle and heart function 
  • Milkproducts 
  • Soyamilk 
  • Tofu 
  • Almonds 
  • Bok choy 
  • Kale 
  • Parsley
  • Broccoli
  • osteoporosis


  • Maintaining bone and muscle health 
  • Cashewnuts
  • Legumes 
  • Whole grains 
  • Green vegetables
  • Chocolate
  • Chronic diseases


  • Important for the nerves
  • Bananas 
  • Mushrooms and spinach 
  • Nuts and seeds
  • High blood pressure 
  • Muscle weakness


  • Maintain the correct volume of circulating blood 
  • Salt 
  • Highly processed foods
  • High blood pressure 


Nutritional recommendations for parents and schools

  1. Promoting healthy eating habits for children

1.1. The Significance of Nutrition in Childhood Development

1.2. The Role of Parents in Shaping Children's Food Choices

1.3. Fostering Positive Eating Habits in Children

1.4. Establishing a Healthy Food Environment at Home

  1. Nutritional Guidelines for Children

2.1. Recommended Dietary Intake for Different Age Groups

2.2. Balancing Nutrient-Rich Foods with Occasional Indulgences

2.3. Sugary Drinks and Processed Foods

2.4. Salt intake

2.5. Hydration

  1. Strategies for Parents and Schools to Promote Healthy Eating

3.1. Implementing a Consistent Meal Routine

3.2. Creating a less expensive meal plans

  1. Addressing Specific Nutritional Concerns in Children

4.1. Food Allergies and Intolerances

4.2. Supporting Children with Picky Eating Habits

4.3. Addressing Childhood Obesity and Overweight

  1. Cultivating a Culture of Healthy Eating in Schools

5.1. Implementing Healthy School Meals and Snacks

5.2. Incorporating Nutrition Education into the Curriculum

5.3. Promoting Physical Activity and Healthy Lifestyle Choices

5.4. Creating a Supportive School Environment for Healthy Eating

  1. Promoting healthy eating habits for children

1.1. The Significance of Nutrition in Childhood Development

Nutrition plays a crucial role in childhood development, influencing physical growth, cognitive development, immune function, and overall health. The early years of life are a critical period for brain development, and proper nutrition is essential for ensuring that children reach their full potential.


Some important nutrients for children include:

  • Calcium strengthens bones. Found in milk, yoghurt and nuts.
  • Protein builds muscles. Found in eggs, lean meats, nuts and cheese. 
  • Carbohydrates provide energy. Found in potatoes, rice (prefer brown rice) and fruits and vegetables. 
  • Iron supports growth and development. Found in legumes and spinach. 

Essential fats help the body absorb other vitamins. Found in fish, avocados and nuts

1.2. The Role of Parents in Shaping Children's Food Choices

Parents play a crucial role in shaping their children's food choices, and their influence extends beyond just providing meals. The habits and attitudes toward food that children develop in their early years often have a lasting impact on their health and well-being. Here are several ways in which parents influence their children's food choices:


Here are 7 healthy and child-friendly habits you can begin to form:

  • Keep snacks simple: a piece of fruit or handful of nuts
  • Eat the rainbow! Create colourful plates with a variety of vegetables
  • Involve little ones in cooking, even if they are just watching while you explain the process they are still learning
  • Limit sugary drinks, including juices
  • Take it slow: don’t rush mealtimes. It can be frustrating when children eat slowly, but this helps them assess their appetite and stop when full
  • Do not punish a child for not eating, as it can develop a negative association. In some cases, they may feel the need to eat everything on their plate, thereby overeating and not listening to their bodies
  • Learning the child about the importance of nutrition, explaining the benefits of various food groups and the role they play in overall health. 


1.3. Fostering Positive Eating Habits in Children

Here are some strategies that parents and caregivers can employ to promote positive eating habits in children:


  • Modeling behavior: children often learn by example, so parents who model healthy eating habits and a positive attitude toward food can significantly influence their children’s choices. 
  • Offer food in a attractive way: be creative in the kitchen and and make figures like a face or animal with the colorful vegetables.
  • Healthy snacks: give them to school some healthy snacks, such as some fruits that you can easily buy at the market.

1.4. Establishing a Healthy Food Environment at Home


Establishing a healthy food environment at home is crucial for promoting positive eating habits and overall well-being. Here are some practical tips to create a home environment that encourages healthy food choices:


  • Food environment at home: The offer of different types of food at home can impact a child’s food choices. Parents can create a environment of fruits, vegetables, nuts. So the kids can use to it and choose less for candy or chips.
  • Involve children in meal preparation: engage children in age-appropriate cooking and meal preparation activities. This is not only provides valuable skills but also makes them more invested in the food they eat. 
  • Offer a variety of foods: introduce a diverse range of foods to children to encourage them to develop a taste for different flavors and textures. 
  • Set a meal routine: consistent meal times help regulate appetite and create a sense of structure around eating. 
  • Eat together as a family: family meals offer an opportunity for connection and communication. Encourage them to eat slowly, savoring each bite, and listen to their bodies signals. 


  1. Nutritional Guidelines for Children

2.1. Recommended Dietary Intake for Different Age Groups


Your calorie intake per day depends on a number of factors. 

It depends on how old you are, what your weight and height are and what your exercise habits are. However, an estimate has been made of how much each age needs on average in calories.  

The recommended caloric intake for children of 7-9 years old is 1650 calories per day and for children of 10-12 years old is 2000 calories per day. 

Indonesian dietary recommendations


Protein (g)

Fat (g)

Carbs (g)

Fiber (g)

7-9 years 





10-12 years






(Ministery of health republic Indonesia)

Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) - List of Nutrition Needs in 1 Day | Andra Farm


2.2. Balancing Nutrient-Rich Foods with Occasional Indulgences


So how do you found the balance between healthy options, but also enjoy the occasional unhealthy treat? 

  • Take it step by step: Adjusting your diet gradually makes it easier for you to stick with it and then at some point it becomes a normal eating pattern.
  • Practice moderation: Rather than completely eliminating certain foods, practice moderation. Allow yourself and your family members to enjoy treats occasionally without feeling guilty. The key is to manage portion sizes. 
  • Plan for treats: instead of indulging spontaneously, plan for treats on specific occasions. This can help create a sense of anticipation and control over treat consumption. 
  • Choose for easy and healthy snacks: sliced vegatables, fruits and nuts. 
  • Enjoy physical activity: regular physical activity is an essential component of a healthy lifestyle. Engaging in physical activity can help offset the effects of occasional treats and contribute to overall well-being. 


2.3. Sugary Drinks and Processed Foods

The range for drinks with sugar and processed food is very large. It is cheap and children often like it because it is sweet. The consumption of sugary drinks and processed foods is associated with several health risks. These products often contain high levels of added sugars, refined carbohydrates, unhealthy fats, and other additives.  Here are some of the key risks associated with the regular intake of sugary drinks and processed foods. 


  • Weight gain and obesity: sugary drinks and processed foods are often high in calorie and low in nutritional values. If your calorie intake is higher than your need, it leads to weight gain and increased risk of obesity. 
  • Type 2 diabetes: A high intake of added sugars. Particularly in the form of sugary drinks, it has been linked to an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Diabetes in children in particular is becoming a growing issue. 
  • Cardiovascular diseases: diets high in added sugars and processed foods have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The intake of these products can lead to elevated levels of LDL (bad cholesterol), and blood pressure. 
  • Less nutrition values: products with a high amount of sugar or processed food are often high in calories and low in essential nutrients. Relying on these foods can result in a diet that lacks the vitamins, minerals, fibers and other nutrients necessary for overall health. 


Maximum recommended sugar intake per day by each group:

  • 7-10 years old - 24 g (6 teaspoons)
  • From 11 years old - 30 g (7 teaspoons)


How much sugar should children have? | BBC Good Food


Here are some strategies to help manage and limit your child's sugar consumption:

  • Choose whole foods: Opt for whole, unprocessed foods such as fruits and, vegetables. These foods are generally lower in added sugars and provide essential nutrients.
  • Limit sugar beverages: encourage your child to drink water, milk, or diluted fruit juices instead of sugary soda’s, or sweetened beverages.
  • Provide healthy snacks: buy by the market nutritious snacks like fresh fruits, vegetables and peanuts.
  • Cook at home: prepare meals at home as much as possible, as this gives you more control over the ingredients in your child’s diet.




2.4. Salt intake


Salt intake is an important aspect of a balanced diet, but excessive consumption can have negative health effects. Both adults and children should be mindful of their salt intake.


For adults, many health authorities, including the World Health Organization (WHO) and the American Heart Association, recommend limiting daily salt intake to about 2,300 milligrams (mg) per day, which is roughly equivalent to one teaspoon of table salt. However, an ideal target is often considered to be around 1,500 mg per day for adults, especially for those with certain health conditions like high blood pressure.


When it comes to children, their salt requirements are generally lower than those of adults. The recommended daily intake for salt in children varies by age:


  • Children 9-13 years old: The recommended daily intake is 1,500 to 1,800 mg of sodium.


Eat Less Sodium: Quick Tips - MyHealthfinder |


To reduce salt intake in both adults and children, consider the following tips:

  • Read food labels: Be aware of the sodium content in packaged and processed foods.
  • Cook at home: When you prepare meals at home, you have more control over the ingredients and can use less salt.
  • Limit processed foods: Many processed and convenience foods are high in sodium. Opt for fresh, whole foods whenever possible.
  • Use herbs and spices: Experiment with herbs and spices to add flavor to your meals without relying on salt.
  • Be mindful of condiments: Sauces, dressings, and condiments can be significant sources of hidden salt.

2.5. Hydration


Hydration is crucial for both children and adults to maintain overall health and well-being. Water is essential for various bodily functions, including digestion, temperature regulation, nutrient transport, and waste elimination. Here are some general guidelines for hydration in both age groups:


Hydration for Children:

  • Recommendations: Children need to drink per day minimum 1.5 liter of water. 
  • Activity Level: Children engaged in physical activities or sports may need additional fluids to replace lost fluids through sweat.
  • Encouragement: Encourage children to drink water throughout the day, especially during meals and physical activities and avoid sugary drinks. 


Hydration for Adults:

  • General Recommendations: adults have to drink minimum 2.7 liter water per day. 


  • Activity Level: Physical activity, hot weather, and certain health conditions may increase the need for fluids. It's essential to adjust water intake accordingly.


  • Balanced Diet:
  • Foods with high water content, such as fruits and vegetables, contribute to overall hydration.


Tips for Both Children and Adults:

  • Carry a Water Bottle:
    • Having water readily available encourages regular sipping throughout the day.
  • Monitor Urine Color:
    • Pale yellow urine is usually a sign of adequate hydration, while dark yellow may indicate dehydration.
  • Limit Sugary and Caffeinated Drinks:
    • Water is the best choice for hydration. Sugary and caffeinated beverages can contribute to dehydration.
  • Listen to Your Body:
    • Thirst is a natural indicator of the body's need for water. Encourage children to drink when thirsty.


Strategies for Parents and Schools to Promote Healthy Eating

3.1. Implementing a Consistent Meal Routine
3.2. Creating a less expensive meal plans
3.3. Addressing Specific Nutritional Concerns in Children


4.1. Food Allergies and Intolerances

Food allergies:


In food allergy, your body's defenses always play a role. Your body makes specific allergic antibodies against food allergens. Food allergens are substances found in food, such as certain proteins from cow's milk. The allergens enter the body by touch or by eating or drinking them.


Top 5 most common allergies 

  1. Nuts 
  2. Peanuts 
  3. Eggs 
  4. Cow milk
  5. Fruits and vegetables 



The symptoms you can get are very different. They often occur within 1 to 2 hours of eating.the symptoms may be:

  • Skin:  mucous membranes: itching (palms, soles of feet and pubic area), redness, hives, edema (fluid retention), thick tongue, thick throat, itching in mouth and ears
  • Gastrointestinal tract:  vomiting, acute vomiting, acute abdominal cramps, acute diarrhea
  • Respiratory tract: Stuffy nose or runny nose, tightness of the chest
  • Blood vessels: drop in blood pressure, loss of consciousness


  • Usually diagnosed through skin prick tests, blood tests (IgE antibodies), and elimination diets.



  • Diet: Food allergy cannot be cured with medication. Treatment consists of omitting the food ingredients that cause the symptoms. You must follow the diet at all times.


Food intolerances


Food intolerance involves difficulty digesting certain foods, leading to symptoms like bloating, gas, diarrhea, or abdominal pain.Unlike allergies, food intolerances do not involve the immune system.


Most common food intolerances 

  1. Lactose intolerance (inability to digest lactose in milk and dairy products).
  2. Gluten intolerance or non-celiac gluten sensitivity.
  3. Fructose intolerance.



  • Hives (itching, redness), swelling of eyelids, lips, tongue, mouth and/or throat.
  • Respiratory problems such as wheezing, coughing and shortness of breath.
  • Gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain and/or cramps, diarrhea, nausea vomiting.
  • Dizziness, (tendency to) fainting.



Diagnosis is often based on symptom observation and elimination diets. Some tests may help identify specific intolerances.


  • Management involves avoiding trigger foods or using enzyme supplements (e.g., lactase for lactose intolerance).
  • Unlike allergies, small amounts of the problematic food may be tolerated without causing severe reactions


4.2. Supporting Children with Picky Eating Habits


Picky eating habits are common among children, and it's often a phase that many outgrow with time. However, supporting children with picky eating habits requires patience, understanding, and a balanced approach. Here are some strategies to help:


  1. Offer a Variety of Foods:
  • Introduce a wide range of nutritious foods to expose children to different tastes and textures. Encourage trying small amounts of new foods alongside familiar ones.
  1. Be a Role Model:
  • Demonstrate healthy eating habits by enjoying a variety of foods yourself. Children are more likely to try new foods if they see others doing the same.
  1. Involve Children in Meal Preparation:
  • Engage children in cooking or meal preparation. This can make them more interested in trying foods they helped prepare.
  1. Set a Regular Meal Schedule:
  • Establish regular meal and snack times. This helps create a routine and ensures that children are hungry when it's time to eat.
  1. Create a Positive Eating Environment:
  • Make mealtimes pleasant and stress-free. Avoid pressuring or forcing children to eat, as this can create negative associations with food.


  1. Offer Small Portions:
  • Present small portions to avoid overwhelming children. They can always ask for more if they're still hungry.
  1. Be Patient:
  • Understand that picky eating is often a normal part of child development. It may take multiple exposures to a new food before a child decides to try it.
  1. Celebrate Successes:
  • Praise and reinforce positive behavior. If a child tries a new food or expands their food choices, acknowledge and celebrate their efforts.
  1. Seek Professional Advice:
  • If picky eating becomes a significant concern or affects a child's health and growth, consult with a pediatrician or a registered dietitian for guidance.
  1. Stay Consistent:
  • Consistency is key. Stick to a consistent approach to avoid confusion and create a stable eating environment.
  1. Encourage Self-Regulation:
  • Teach children to recognize their hunger and fullness cues. This helps them develop a healthy relationship with food.

4.3. Addressing Childhood Obesity and Overweight

Addressing childhood obesity and overweight is a critical public health goal that involves a combination of individual, family, community, and societal efforts. Here's a more detailed approach to tackling this complex issue:

  1. Health Education:
  • Family Education: Parents need to get the knwoldegde about healthy nutrition and physical activity.
  • School Programs: The school needs to teaching children about making healthy food choices and the benefits of an active lifestyle.
  1. Promoting Healthy Eating:
  • Healthy School Meals: cafeterias need to offer nutritious and balanced meals, adhering to guidelines that limit the availability of sugary drinks and high-calorie, low-nutrient foods.
  1. Encouraging Physical Activity:
  • Physical Education: Support and enhance physical education programs in schools, ensuring that students receive regular opportunities for physical activity.
  • Community Recreation: Develop safe and accessible spaces for recreational activities within communities, encouraging families to engage in physical activities together.
  1. Screen Time Management:
  • Screen Time Guidelines: Establish and communicate guidelines for screen time, encouraging limits on recreational screen use and promoting alternative activities.
  • Educational Screen Content: Encourage the development and promotion of educational and physically active screen content for children.
  1. Family Involvement:
  • Parental Role Modeling: Parents and caregivers should model healthy behaviors, including making nutritious food choices and engaging in regular physical activity.
  • Family Meals: Encourage regular family meals, providing an opportunity to share healthy foods and reinforce positive eating habits.

Cultivating a Culture of Healthy Eating in Schools

5.1. Implementing Healthy School Meals and Snacks

5.2. Incorporating Nutrition Education into the Curriculum

5.3. Promoting Physical Activity and Healthy Lifestyle Choices

5.4. Creating a Supportive School Environment for Healthy Eating


 Food preparation and hygiene

  1. What to make sure before preparing foods to cook or to eat?
  2. Why good hygiene practices is important
  3. Hygiene related diseases
  1. What to make sure before preparing foods to cook or to eat?

Ensuring food safety is essential before preparing or consuming any food to prevent foodborne illnesses. Here are key guidelines to follow:

Before Cooking:

  • Check Expiry Dates:
    • Verify the expiration dates of perishable items, including dairy, meat, and poultry.
  • Inspect Fresh Produce:
    • Examine fruits and vegetables for signs of spoilage or damage. Wash them thoroughly under running water.
  • Clean Work Surfaces:
    • Ensure that countertops, cutting boards, and utensils are clean and sanitized before starting food preparation.
  • Wash Hands:
    • Wash hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds before handling food.
  • Separate Raw and Cooked Foods:
    • Use separate cutting boards and utensils for raw meats and ready-to-eat foods to avoid cross-contamination.
  • Thawing Safely:
    • If using frozen ingredients, thaw them in the refrigerator, cold water, or the microwave—avoid thawing at room temperature.
  • Marinating:
    • Marinate foods in the refrigerator, not on the counter, and discard used marinades.

During Cooking:

  • Proper Cooking Temperatures:
    • Cook meats, poultry, seafood, and eggs thoroughly to their recommended internal temperatures to kill harmful bacteria.
  • Use a Food Thermometer:
    • Verify the internal temperature of cooked foods using a food thermometer to ensure they reach safe levels.
  • Avoid Cross-Contamination:
    • Do not use the same utensils or plates for cooked and raw foods. Clean utensils and surfaces between tasks.
  • Safe Leftovers:
    • Refrigerate or freeze leftovers promptly. Consume refrigerated leftovers within a few days.

Before Eating:

  • Check Temperature:
    • Ensure that hot foods are served hot and cold foods are served cold to prevent bacterial growth.
  • Inspect for Signs of Spoilage:
    • Examine the appearance, smell, and texture of foods to identify any signs of spoilage before consumption.
  • Avoid Cross-Contamination:
    • Use clean utensils and serving dishes. Do not place cooked food on surfaces that previously held raw ingredients.
  • Be Mindful of Allergens:
    • Clearly label and communicate the presence of common allergens in prepared dishes.
  • Hygiene Practices:
    • Encourage proper handwashing before eating and ensure that dining areas are clean.
  • Storage:
    • Store perishable foods in the refrigerator promptly after eating, and use within recommended timeframes.
  • Be Cautious with High-Risk Populations:
    • Exercise extra caution when preparing and serving food to vulnerable populations, such as young children, pregnant women, the elderly, and individuals with compromised immune systems.

By following these guidelines, you can significantly reduce the risk of foodborne illnesses and ensure that the food you prepare and consume is safe and enjoyable.


  1. Why good hygiene practices is important

Proper hygiene practices help prevent the contamination of food with harmful bacteria, viruses, parasites, and other pathogens. Foodborne illnesses can result from the consumption of contaminated food, leading to symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and food infection or food poisoning. 

  1. Hygiene related diseases

Good hygiene is an important part of a healthy diet as foods can contain many pathogens. 


  • Consider, for example, salmonella bacteria in chicken that has not been properly heated.
  • Or parasites from animal feces, with which fruits and vegetables can be contaminated. If these pathogens enter the body through your food, unpleasant and sometimes even dangerous symptoms can occur. 
  • Common complaints associated with foodborne infections or poisionings are diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea and vomiting


There are always bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites in food and drink. Most are harmless. Some, however, can make you sick.


This is called food infection if the bacteria, viruses or parasites themselves make you sick.It is called food poisoning if the toxins the bacteria or fungi make you sick.You usually don't know which of the 2 you have from contaminated food.

School Nutrition and Hygiene practices outside of Indonesia - Lesson learned from the Netherlands. 

Message from Avalon

(your picture)


At my school, the Hague university of applied sciences, is a very large building with a lot of students, where they have different cafeterias where the assortment for food is very large. The assortment consists of healthy and unhealthy foods. There are also many vegan options. The people who prepared the food are wearing gloves for hygiene. When you go in the school to the toilet, there is hanging there a flowchart with how to wash your hands. 

(picture of your university and the cafeteria)


The classrooms of the school are clean, it will be cleaned every day. For students it is allowed to eat and drink in the classroom. 

(picture of a common classroom situation in the Netherlands).

When I was in elementary school you could choose if you wanted the school milk package. then your parents paid for it every month and then you got a carton of milk every day. You could choose from regular milk, yogurt drink and chocolate milk. I chose the yogurt drink, it was nice and sweet. For breakfast my mom made for me every day a sandwich, probably with peanut butter. Around 10 in the morning there was a break, where I drank the milk and ate a cookie. Every kid in the class eated a cookie. For the lunch break I went home, and ate sandwiches with sweet toppings. When you had your birthday as a child in elementary school, you would visit every class and hand out sweet snacks. We were not taught about nutrition in school, so from your parents you had to learn what was healthy and what was not. 

(picture of you in elementary school)

Nowadays in the Netherlands they are busy in elementary schools giving lessons on nutrition.  My school, The Hague University organizes projects where students are tasked with getting elementary school children more aware about healthy eating. One way students have carried this out is by giving informative lessons in the classroom and active lessons in the gymnasium. 


School-based nutrition education is promising to improve children’s healthy eating behavior, especially when experiential learning methods are used and parents are involved. Taste Lessons (Smaaklessen) is a Dutch nutrition education programme for primary schools, aiming to raise children’s interest in taste, health and food quality by providing experiences with taste and food in a positive and playful way. When children have birthdays now, only healthy snacks may be handed out.


Taste Lessons (Smaaklessen) is national nutrition education programmes for Dutch primary schools, developed in 2006 by the Netherlands Nutrition Centre and Wageningen University for grades 1-8 of elementary schools (children of 4-12 years old). The programme is designed from the idea that teaching children about conscious and healthy eating behavior in a playful way might be more effective than providing children with information in a more theoretical way. The aim of the programme is to increase children’s taste, acceptance, knowledge about and interest in food and nutrition, in order to establish healthy and conscious eating behavior at a later age.






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